Effective Teaching – pre reading and reflection for FULT Module 3 


Ok, so it seems that this module relates to HOW to teach. 
The key guru for this block seems to be Toohey, whose learning phases really do seem to parallel the Bloom’s taxonomy……nice to see it is all quite coherent these educational principles. 


Some useful principles suggested by RMIT – I found the principles a bit lofty and difficult to apply to the situation in medicine though. I am not sure that the curriculum is necessarily wholly flexible in medicine. It is important to have the competencies to practice safely, not too much for negotiation there. I guess that different disciplines have got a varying capacity for flexibility in their approach. The importance of a feedback rich environment is important, and also encouraging an environment where reflection is key. 

Interesting food for thought nevertheless though 


I haven;t been able to access the videos to annotate at this stage but have reported it 

The scenario – intelligent teacher teaching difficult subject material and trying to explain it using a real world case study. being supported by online forum. Appears to have students from a broad range of backgrounds. 

Blended student cohort: 

This terminology relates to a diversity of students and teachers 

  • Experience level
  • Interest level 
  • Confidence presenting 
  • Confidence with exploring new material 
  • Confidence with English 

What are the main issues 

    1. Mismatch between student and teacher expectations 
    2. Miscommunication from the teacher – didn’t explain the reasons for doing the case study 
    3. Didn’t establish understanding and mastery of the basic concepts before launching into the case study
    4. Admittedly difficult subject material 
    5. Didn’t take account of different learning styles, levels of experience, anxieties about presenting in different formats 

    How would you go about resolving these issues? 

    1. Openly address the interpersonal issues in the class – if you don’t bring them out into the open, they will fester and potentially become worse
    2. IF behaviour becomes overly hostile and destructive, may need to review with respect to university behaviour guidelines 
    3. May need to seek advice and support from colleagues  
    4. Go back to basics – ensure students have the foundational knowledge and understanding at a basic level 
    5. Teach the basics and clarify their understanding of it
    6. Explain the reasons and rationale for applying the knowledge to a specific case study and what specifically they are trying to look analyse and evaluate in the process 

    Reflections after FULT 2 – EDUCATIONAL DESIGN 

    It was great to be back amongst a group of enthusiastic learners for this week all about educational alignment and the flipped classroom.


    It was good to have the opportunity to sit and chat with a greater diversity of participants in the program. The first discussions I had were with a lecturer who has recently moved to UNSW from India and is working on materials engineering and a graphite like material which is sourced from waste products which can be used to create new computer components – fascinating stuff! My main experience with a similar type of material relates to orthoses! It is always so interesting to expand your horizons of worldly experience.

    My other neighbour is from ADFA in Canberra, who lectures on Australian politics and who has it seems very successfully integrated a “Flipped learning” model into her lecturing program.


    I enjoyed using Blooms’ Taxonomy of educational objectives, particularly via the Pyramid pictorial which give s fabulous model for understanding how true learning comes about, learning for life!

    Going through the educational alignment activity using the taxonomy for my specific example (basic rehabilitation principles for second year medical students) was in fact a perfect example of how the process works from remembering through to understanding to applying it to my example, and eventually through to analysing how it went, evaluating the outcomes for the students and finally to creating real  change in the curriculum and in the learning program as it pertains to rehabilitation medicine.


    What an excellent rigorous and lively discussion with three lecturers who currently use flipped teaching in practicality – in medicine, history and accounting. What wonderful diverity of experience! And indeed ranging from the theoretical to the analytical and the practical, together demonstrating what a versatile option it is.

    Key points from the discussion for me:


    • What to flip: Not all topic areas are amenable to a flipped learning approach.
    • Time involved: One hour of flipped teaching = TWENTY hours of preparation – WOW, that’s just a little bit scary!!
    • Length of video: 12 to 24 minutes. Sometimes it is better to do a whole bunch of shorter videos, eg four minutes. This also makes it easier to produce content, especially where the subject matter may be evolving – in which case, you can update just a small proportion of the videos rather the whole shebang.
    • Practicalities of video preparation: powerpoint with voice over, other presentation options eg “Presso”


    • There needs to be very simple and clear instructions. This is a new concept and some students struggle. Tell them more than you usually would. Communicate very clearly WHY you are doing. Be structural and procedural.Students need to understand WHY they are doing the pre-learning activities – this will increase compliance!
    • Options for ensuring “compliance” with the pre-activity: incorporate clever things into the video eg answer questions as they go along, the lecturer can then have the functionality in the program to see what proportion of people have actually gone through, and which components they may have struggled with.
    • Effectiveness of the pre-activity: If you know what aspects they struggled with in the “pre-activity”, it means that you can tailor a specific “mini-lecture” at the start of the class session for further clarify the areas with this the students struggled.


    • Physical layout in lecture room may make collaborative activities difficult
    • Noise / crowd control for collaborative activities in the lecture room – a noisy environment makes it hard for those prone to sensory overload and for those with ESL background. Need to have enough facilitators
    • Anxiety induced by forced participation in group activities and the requirement to present. This may adversely affect learning capacity for some students. Brings fear into the learning environment.
    • If relying on wifi to access materials, need to have a back up plan B in case the wifi gets overloaded!!


    It is important to bring it all together at the end, to have the finalisation of the learning “scaffolding” to conclude the process or otherwise, it can be rather dissatisfying and unfulfilling.

    • Reflection / Journaling what they went through – learning outcomes / activities etc – this is the most important bit, and often is the after through especially if you focus on the video preparation!
    • This could be done at the end of the session or in their own time. Important to structure it – give them the specific questions to answer, eg three specific questions. Interesting that journaling is now a compulsory component of the medical program.
    • Important for the lecturer to model their behaviour and reflect too. Incorporate reflective comments from both students and the lecturer for the next block of teaching,
    • Another interesting discussion was the option for GROUP journaling  – this can help the dots to be connected! The option of the De Bono thinking hats can be used as a framework for reflection. My dear husband has spoken of these with me many many moons ago. The only one I could really remember though was the black and perhaps the yellow one! Typical!
    • Management  BLUE – what is the subject? What are we thinking about? What is the goal?
    • Information WHITE – information / facts
    • Emotions RED – intuitive instinctive responses
    • Discernment BLACK – cautious / conservative
    • Optimistic response YELLOW – benefits / harmony
    • Creativity GREEN


    • Does the flipped classroom potentially do away with “tutorials” – where does the dividing line between one and the other come. Perhaps the tutorial is the time where presentations are given?
    • Flipped classroom pretty much brings the timetable of the learning process forward a notch by putting the onus on the student to do some pre-learning. I guess it brings the actual application and translation of knowledge to the real world a stage earlier.

    • If the videos you have put your heart and soul into designing go into the public domain – is this a good or a bad thing? What of the copyright of the videos. As my neighbour noted “the best lectures go viral”. As my other neighbour said, “what the university sells is the accreditation nowadays, rather than the content”
    • Some students feel less bonded with  the lecturer who would otherwise have spent time an hour each week with them.

    ADIOS  – until next week!!! 

    Teaching for Learning – FULT Module 3

          BEFORE the face-to-face session

    • Explore a model for learning that enables you to choose teaching strategies that enable engagement and learning.
    • Consider the effects on student learning of what they bring to the experience.
    • Explore and reflect on teaching ideas and strategies introduced through the videos to engage students and enhance learning, and how they can be applied to your own context (Pre-session activity 1 – Video annotation).
    • Consider some issues and challenges that arise in teaching and how you might respond to these through a case study (Pre-session activity 2 – Case study).

    Constructive Alignment in education – FULT Module 2 pre-activity


    • Coined by our friend Biggs (1999)
    • Ask the question: What knowledge do I want my students to apply by the end of the course??
    • Align the three important components of education – learning OUTCOMES, teaching (and learning) STRATEGIES and ASSESSMENT tasks


    Review one learning outcome in your course based on Bloom’s taxonomy referred to in the resources in this module.

      • Propose learning activities and assessment tasks that would constructively align with this learning outcome.
      • Post your constructively aligned learning outcome, learning activity and assessment task
    Author: Shari Parker
    Learning Outcome:
    1. The student recalls the concepts of functioning, disability and health, impairment, activity limitation, participation restriction  and contextural factors, as described in the WHO international classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF model)
    2. The student is able to explain concepts within the ICF model
    3. The student can apply the ICF model to details obtained from history and examination of a Rehabilitation patient
    4. The student can analyse their application of the ICF model by considering and identifying possible opportunities for therapeutic intervention
    5. The student starts to consider the impact that Rehabilitation management may have on the individual patient experience using the ICF model
    6. The student can write up a rehabilitation case using the skills and knowledge gained through the session.
    Learning Activity:
    • Student watch the video introducing Rehabilitation Medicine prior to the session (using “flipped classroom” approach
    • Student may choose to read additional written resources prior to the session
    • Student outlines and explains the ICF model at the commencement of the session, and has the opportunity to seek clarification or further explanation.
    • Student takes history and examines Rehabilitation patient with supervision and guidance from the tutor
    • The student identifies ICF elements from the patient history
    • Student and tutor discuss options for rehabilitation therapeutic intervention and the potential impact that these would have on the experience of disease for the patient based on the ICF formulation
    Assessment Task:
    • Online quiz regarding the concepts – feedback is given after the quiz to ensure understanding of the concepts
    • Reflection after the session to be included in student’s portfolio regarding their experiences during the Rehabilitation Placement, particularly with reference to the ICF model and the case they assessed.
    • Tutor provides constructive feedback
    Resources: Core Learning Objectives for Rehabilitation Medicine in the Primary Medical Degree Program (Australasian Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine) 

    ICF Model